Thermal Power Plant ; Read here Important details of Day to Day Use Process Optimization Formula And Useful Terms & Definitions are collected in one place.

Thermal Power Station - 'How to save crores of money in Power station ?' Useful Formula and Definitions For Power Professional For Process Optimization, Which are Very Important For Different Calculations To Saves Crores Of Money.

Thermal power plant process optimization formula and important definitions
Thermal Power Plant All Important Formula and Definitions Collectively In One Place.

        Thermal Power Plant is one of the measure source of power generation in the country 'India' and all over world. All the thermal power plants in the country are using coal as main fuel for power generation. 

        The top power producing PSU companies in the country are  NTPC, NLC,DVC and respective State Government Power Generating Stations, along with all PSU companies there are many top private power producing companies are such as Adani Power, Reliance Power, TATA Power, Vedanta Power, Bhusan Power Ltd, Jindal Power Ltd, JSW Energy Ltd, CLP, ILFS, CESC and many small private players are also producing power for the nation building. 

          All the PSU and Private sector companies are using coal as main fuel for power generation. To produce power from coal there are many process are involved in the power generating station. These process are combination of many complicated operational process cycle such as Power Flow, Coal Flow, Flue Gas Flow, Steam Flow and Water Flow. All these process are run with combination many small and large formula which are useful for process optimization. So it is very important to remember all these formulas at finger tips. 

      In the power generating station mostly technical persons such as Engineers, Diploma holders and ITI holders from different branches  are working. Their positions are categorized from lower level to top most positions as per their educational qualification and professional experience.

        Power plant professional lower level to top most positions and new Comer's are need to remember all these important formula for different calculation which is useful for process optimization. By this optimization process Power professional saves crores of money for the company.

       So here in this story our organization decided to collect all the power station every day useful important Formula and Definitions in one place to make power professional easy to use in their different uses.


The circulation number is the ratio of quantity of water-steam mixture flowing through the circuit to the quality of steam produced in the circuit.
Example:- If 10 kg of water is circulated for each kg of steam generation, then circulation number is 10.
Circulation Number For Different Boiler:-
(i) Natural Circulation Industrial Boiler (10-15)
(ii) Natural Circulation Utility Boiler (7-9)
(iii) Assisted Circulation Boilers (2-4)
(iv) Forced Circulation/Once through Boiler (1)


 The heat required to bring the water from 0 deg to boiling point is known as sensible heating.


 When required sensible heating added to water, it starts boiling with the continuation of heat addition. But both water and the steam remains at the same temperature though heat is continued to be added till entire water is converted into steam. The temperature is known as saturation temperature.


 During boiling process, that is after the water attains the saturation temperature, even though heat added the temperature remains constant. This heat is being used to change the water from liquid to vapour state is known as Latent Heat.


When steam is heated out of contact with water the steam temperature increases above saturation temperature is known as Super Heating.


            The water turns into steam on addition of sensible heat alone without going through the phase of wet steam is called Critical Point. This occurs at a temperature of 374 ℃ and 224.6 kg/cm2 absolute pressure. At critical point the density of water and steam remains the same.


For Pressurization:- Rate of rise of pressure should not be more than 10 kg/cm2 per minute upto 80% of the boiler test pressure and should be 1 to 2 kg/cm2 per minute beyond that value.
Hydrotest Completion Criteria:-
The average pressure drop should be less than 1 kg/cm2 within 10 minutes after stopping the boiler pressurizing pump.


In thermal power station coal is used as main fuel, So to know the coal properties two methods are used one is Proximate Analysis and other is Ultimate Analysis.
(i) Proximate Analysis:
Proximate analysis is the technique used to analyze Fixed Carbon(FC), Volatile Matter(VM), Moisture, Ash, Hard Grove Grindability Index(HGI), Gross Calorific Value(GCV).
(ii) Ultimate Analysis:
Where as ultimate analysis is the technique used to analyze chemical composition in coal such as Carbon, Hydrogen(H2), Sulphur, Nitrogen(N2), Oxygen(O2), Moisture(H2O), Ash.


Excess air is an important parameter in boiler for perfect combustion of fuel. Excess air play a measure role for boiler efficiency calculation. Due to increase in excess air in boiler the Dry Flue gas loss drastically increases, which is one of the measure loss in thermal power plant which reduces the thermal power plant efficiency. So it is very important to control the boiler excess air by which power plant engineers can reduce the financial loss to the company.

Formula for Excess Air Calculation = (100*Boiler Exit O2 Percentages) / (Atmosphere O2 Percentages - Boiler Exit O2 Percentages)

Atmosphere O2 Percentages Approx. 21 %

Example:-  Boiler Exit O2 Percentages = 3.5 %

Then Total Excess Air = (100*3.5)/(21-3.5) = (350/17.5) = 20 %

Dear reader like all above many more contents related to thermal power plant will come in this site regularly, So to upgrade yourself in day to day process optimization calculation and definitions keep on reading on site If any queries regarding this contents you are welcome to forum for discussion and put your queries on the comment box.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post